At times an invented device may not be useful during it's initial stages but as time passes the utility of the device may become apparent or the device may be used for a very different purpose. One such device is treadmill, an important equipment of the modern day gym was actually used for punishing prisoners during the 1800s. Treadmills were invented in 1818 by an English engineer named Sir William Cubitt. Initial treadmills had a mechanism different from the present day treadmills, requiring the user to step upwards like walking up an endless staircase.
The prisoners were made to turn a large paddlewheel by stepping on the spokes of the machine. Turning the wheel would in turn pump out water, crush grain, produce electricity, power ventilators in mines etc. Prisoners were often forced to spend up to six hours a day on the wheel in order to utilize their muscle power, to cure their idleness and to do useful work, this was equivalent of climbing about 5,000 to 14,000 feet. So the treadmill was used to torture and punish criminals. They remained in use to punish prisoners until the second half of the 19th century but later they were used to diagnose heart and lung disease in hospitals and they gradually turned into exercise equipment. Treadmills today are used for various purposes like medical facilities (hospitals, rehabilitation centers, medical and physiotherapy clinics, institutes of higher education), sports clubs, Biomechanics Institute, orthopedic shoe shops, running shops, Olympic training centers, universities, fire-training centers, NASA, test facilities and training rooms of police and army, gyms and even home users.
Water usually doesn’t have an expiry date but the plastic bottle that contains water has an expiry date so the plastic bottle will eventually expire and will leach chemicals into the drinking water as the bottles are usually made up of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) . The chemicals from the plastic bottle may or may not make the water toxic and harmful but it will definitely change the taste of the water. So, even if the water bottle expires it is still safe to consume the water if and only if the bottle isn’t opened and is properly sealed because the packaging keeps the dust, oxygen, microbes, high heat, pesticides, gasoline and other agents away from the water and thus preventing the water from being spoiled. Also storing the water for too long will change the bottled water’s appearance and smell along with the change in taste but the water will still be safe to consume. According to various food laws all the food products and consumable goods sold should have an expiration date and when Plastic or PET based water bottles are exposed to sunlight for a very long time algae or fungal depositions start taking place which is indicated by a light green tint on the bottle’s surface, water from such plastic containers shouldn’t be consumed. The average time of such micro-bacterial decomposition based on average storage conditions will give the expiry date that is to be displayed on the water bottle, therefore even though water doesn’t have an expiry date it is necessary to display an expiry date on the plastic bottle or contains.
In an analog x-ray, a light sensitive film is exposed to the X-rays and followed by this, the film is developed. The digital X-ray has modernized this system and uses a digital detector system instead of the usual photographic light-sensitive film used in analog X-rays. So during the Xray session, the X-rays are directed to a particular part of the body so other parts of the body are not exposed to any radiation.
The digital detector system on opposite sides captures the incoming X-rays which varies in strength and converts them into electrical signals which are then shown on the computer. because there is no time needed for film development The X-ray images can immediately be collected after the exam a compared t the traditional system.
I can relate to you cause I have a kid too :) You can start with Lightbot, which is an App in Android and introduces kids to complicated concepts in programming through simple and funny games. Post that you can let him try Scratch. After that he should be ready for full fledged coding.
Yes, that is right. That started after 15 Jun this year when the Union home ministry brought into force Arms rule 2016 that also brings Air Guns under the ambit of license. More details in the link below.
On a hot summer day or after strenuous exercise, most pups let their tongues hang out of their mouths as they huff and puff or they lie outstretched on the cool floor. It's not uncommon for dogs to pant after a long run, but do they also sweat? Dogs pant as a means of evaporative cooling: when a dog gets hot, it will open its mouth and breathe heavily. As water evaporates from the dog's tongue, nasal passages and lungs, this helps lower its body temperature. While dogs primarily use panting to cool themselves down, they also sweat — but not where you may think Dogs actually sweat through their paws, Carrier said. In 2011, she was working with beagles in her lab, and while checking to ensure their nails were well trimmed, she noticed something peculiar in several of the dogs. Paw pads are a specialized type of skin that's heavily keratinized, to make them tough for walking on, but these dogs had paws that were damp — and in some cases, they were even dripping with sweat. In several of the animals, this led to a great deal of pain because the skin was softer and more delicate than a normal paw pad."It's like having an open blister," Carrier told Live Science. Carrier's research was the first to describe hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, in beagles. But the sweat glands in the dogs' feet may also serve another purpose, according to Carrier. "They do have true sweat glands in their paw pads, [but] that's not enough to cool them down," she said. Panting cools a much greater surface area than a dog's paws would. According to Carrier, experts speculate that sweat on a dog's paw pads actually has more to do with traction than temperature. In other words, it makes their paws tackier and better at gripping the ground. "The one thing I always tell people is a normal dog foot should smell like they just had their paws in a bag of corn chips, because they do sweat through their feet," Carrier said. "It has a salty smell." Dogs also have sweat glands in their noses, but again, they're not necessarily for cooling purposes, Carrier said. While it remains unproved, Carrier said the thinking is that a damp nose better attracts scent molecules to the olfactory center. The canine sense of smell is famous, and its power has recently been harnessed to sniff out diabetes, cancer, and even dangerous infections like C. difficile. A 2012 research study conducted at the VU University Medical Centre in the Netherlands trained a beagle to sit or lie down when the scent of the bacterium was detected. The dog performed with impressive accuracy, correctly identifying 25 out of 30 infected samples and 265 out of 270 controls. In comparison studies, where they took fecal samples and did a side-by-side lab test, the trained dogs were nearly as accurate, if not better, than the test.
In this process, the surgeon would use the patient's own tissues from other parts of the body as material for the surgery. Silicone rubber is another popular material that is used for cosmetic surgery nowadays.