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What is the history of treadmills?

1 user answered

Jeshma Orusu, Hyderabad
User, Level 6 Contributor
At times an invented device may not be useful during it's initial stages but as time passes the utility of the device may become apparent or the device may be used for a very different purpose. One such device is treadmill, an important equipment of the modern day gym was actually used for punishing prisoners during the 1800s. Treadmills were invented in 1818 by an English engineer named Sir William Cubitt. Initial treadmills had a mechanism different from the present day treadmills, requiring the user to step upwards like walking up an endless staircase. 
The prisoners were made to turn a large paddlewheel by stepping on the spokes of the machine. Turning the wheel would in turn pump out water, crush grain, produce electricity, power ventilators in mines etc. Prisoners were often forced to spend up to six hours a day on the wheel in order to utilize their muscle power, to cure their idleness and to do useful work, this was equivalent of climbing about 5,000 to 14,000 feet. So the treadmill was used to torture and punish criminals. They remained in use to punish prisoners until the second half of the 19th century but later they were used to diagnose heart and lung disease in hospitals and  they gradually turned into exercise equipment. Treadmills today are used for various purposes like medical facilities (hospitals, rehabilitation centers, medical and physiotherapy clinics, institutes of higher education), sports clubs, Biomechanics Institute, orthopedic shoe shops, running shops, Olympic training centers, universities, fire-training centers, NASA, test facilities and training rooms of police and army, gyms and even home users. 

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Do packaged drinking water have an expiry date?

1 user answered

Jeshma Orusu, Hyderabad
User, Level 6 Contributor
Water usually doesn’t have an expiry date but the plastic bottle that contains water has an expiry date so the plastic bottle will eventually expire and will leach chemicals into the drinking water as the bottles are usually made up of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) . The chemicals from the plastic bottle may or may not make the water toxic and harmful but it will definitely change the taste of the water. So, even if the water bottle expires it is still safe to consume the water if and only if the bottle isn’t opened and is properly sealed because the packaging keeps the dust, oxygen, microbes, high heat, pesticides, gasoline and other agents away from the water and thus preventing the water from being spoiled. Also storing the water for too long will change the bottled water’s appearance and smell along with the change in taste but the water will still be safe to consume. According to various food laws all the food products and consumable goods sold should have an expiration date and when Plastic or PET based water bottles are exposed to sunlight for a very long time algae or fungal depositions start taking place which is indicated by a light green tint on the bottle’s surface, water from such plastic containers shouldn’t be consumed. The average time of such micro-bacterial decomposition based on average storage conditions will give the expiry date that is to be displayed on the water bottle, therefore even though water doesn’t have an expiry date it is necessary to display an expiry date on the plastic bottle or contains. 



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What are the facts related to blood?

1 user answered

Jeshma Orusu, Hyderabad
User, Level 6 Contributor
  •  Blood constitutes eight percent of the total body weight.

  • Mosquitoes usually prefer the blood type O

  • Spiders, lobsters and snails have blue colour blood. Earthworms and leeches have green blood. Starfish has clear or yellowish blood.

  • White blood cells constitute one percent of the total blood.

  • Blood also contains very few milligrammes of gold.

  • A red blood cell takes thirty seconds to travel the entire body.

  • -During pregnancy, the amount of blood in their body usually increases by fifty percent.

  • New borns have only one cup of blood in their entire body.

  • 1.3 million pints of donated blood is spoiled every year since blood only has a shelf life of forty days.

  • Pus is nothing but the dead white cells.

  • Cows have more than eight hundred blood types.

  • In humans, most familiar blood groups are O, A, B and AB.
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What is digital X-ray?

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Ram Kumar, Rajnandgaon
User, Level 9 Contributor
In an analog x-ray, a light sensitive film is exposed to the X-rays and followed by this, the film is developed. The digital X-ray has modernized this system and uses a digital detector system instead of the usual photographic light-sensitive film used in analog X-rays. So during the Xray session, the X-rays are directed to a particular part of the body so other parts of the body are not exposed to any radiation.

The digital detector system on opposite sides captures the incoming X-rays which varies in strength and converts them into electrical signals which are then shown on the computer. because there is no time needed for film development The  X-ray images can immediately be collected after the exam a compared t the traditional system.
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My son is 9 years old and in class 4.He wants to do some hobby course in computers. I have no idea what all are the options. Can you please guide me.He is quite creative

1 user answered

Khushboo Patel, Balco
User, Level 8 Contributor
I can relate to you cause I have a kid too :) You can start with Lightbot, which is an App in Android and introduces kids to complicated concepts in programming through simple and funny games. Post that you can let him try Scratch. After that he should be ready for full fledged coding.
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Kya air gun buy karne ke liye licence lagta hai

1 user answered

Khushboo Patel, Balco
User, Level 8 Contributor
Yes, that is right. That started after 15 Jun this year when the Union home ministry brought into force Arms rule 2016 that also brings Air Guns under the ambit of license. More details in the link below.

http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/firearm-laws-get-tougher-even-airguns-need-permit/story-xSZayPM9elkEYnYx4VOh6L.html
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How or from where do I find a civil site supervisor job?

1 user answered

Abhishek Dewangan, Raipur
User, Level 9 Contributor
Try and contact civil contractors, builders or real estate developers in your city to find whether they have any supervisor jobs available.

Other than this you can also try contacting job consultancies in your city. When you visit them a resume that has your experience in the said domain would help you out the most.
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Do dogs sweat?

1 user answered

Aayushi Parashar, Delhi
User, Level 7 Contributor
On a hot summer day or after strenuous exercise, most pups let their tongues hang out of their mouths as they huff and puff or they lie outstretched on the cool floor. It's not uncommon for dogs to pant after a long run, but do they also sweat?
Dogs pant as a means of evaporative cooling: when a dog gets hot, it will open its mouth and breathe heavily. As water evaporates from the dog's tongue, nasal passages and lungs, this helps lower its body temperature.
While dogs primarily use panting to cool themselves down, they also sweat — but not where you may think
Dogs actually sweat through their paws, Carrier said. In 2011, she was working with beagles in her lab, and while checking to ensure their nails were well trimmed, she noticed something peculiar in several of the dogs. Paw pads are a specialized type of skin that's heavily keratinized, to make them tough for walking on, but these dogs had paws that were damp — and in some cases, they were even dripping with sweat.
In several of the animals, this led to a great deal of pain because the skin was softer and more delicate than a normal paw pad."It's like having an open blister," Carrier told Live Science.
Carrier's research was the first to describe hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, in beagles.
But the sweat glands in the dogs' feet may also serve another purpose, according to Carrier.
"They do have true sweat glands in their paw pads, [but] that's not enough to cool them down," she said.
Panting cools a much greater surface area than a dog's paws would. According to Carrier, experts speculate that sweat on a dog's paw pads actually has more to do with traction than temperature. In other words, it makes their paws tackier and better at gripping the ground.
"The one thing I always tell people is a normal dog foot should smell like they just had their paws in a bag of corn chips, because they do sweat through their feet," Carrier said. "It has a salty smell."
Dogs also have sweat glands in their noses, but again, they're not necessarily for cooling purposes, Carrier said. While it remains unproved, Carrier said the thinking is that a damp nose better attracts scent molecules to the olfactory center. The canine sense of smell is famous, and its power has recently been harnessed to sniff out diabetes, cancer, and even dangerous infections like C. difficile. A 2012 research study conducted at the VU University Medical Centre in the Netherlands trained a beagle to sit or lie down when the scent of the bacterium was detected. The dog performed with impressive accuracy, correctly identifying 25 out of 30 infected samples and 265 out of 270 controls.
In comparison studies, where they took fecal samples and did a side-by-side lab test, the trained dogs were nearly as accurate, if not better, than the test.
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Ayurveda or Homeopathy, which one provides better medication for Asthma?

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Shaswati, Bhubaneswar
User, Level 7 Contributor
Both Ayurveda and homeopathy have claimed to cure any disease. The results seem to be long lasting too.
Ayurveda has described Asthma as Swas Rog and given various preventions and medications for it. The application of certain natural oils like 'til.' Daily herbal oil massage has proved helpful, and many medicines of ayurvedic preparations like Swakuthar Ras, Vasavleha, and Sitopaladi Choorna have been free of side-effects and effective. So one can safely say that ayurvedic treatment includes usage of herbal materials and vegetable drugs for external application and internal cleansing too. However, it is known that it takes a lot of time. Every day change in the lifestyle is a must while undergoing treatment.

Coming to Homeopathy, it is a tricky business. It prepares the medicines from all sorts of natural materials, minerals, etc., and dilutes with alcohol or water. So, many times, it 's hard to decipher if the medicines are just fooling you. You may have noticed that all homeopathic medicines taste almost the same. Even though homeopathic solutions have made breathing easier for many, and offers drugs according to the body systems of different patients; it seems Ayurveda should be your first choice here.

You can always opt for allopathy, but if your body does not respond well to those drugs, Ayurveda should be the next path. If it turns futile, you may then risk your money in homeopathy. One thing I can vouch for is that both the methods are totally natural. Side effects to any of the medicines are minimal.
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Some time back, the nation had an intolerance debate everywhere. What was it all about?

1 user answered

Shaswati, Bhubaneswar
User, Level 7 Contributor
Remember how we all rejoiced in the sweet victory of WC 2012? How the whole nation grieved for Nirbhaya together? How each of us chain-shared Aloknath-memes on social media without fail? Ah! Unity in diversity! We Indians have got each other’s back. We are all set to follow the herd even when it is to gang up against the most ridiculously volatile mistakes of people.

*we watched your Dhoom 3, how can you call us intolerant?...Go and live in Pakistan, I will buy you tickets to the first flight out of India...how dare you criticize a nation that has given you so much*

Tweets, memes and worst of all it was news of the day on all leading Indian channels. It does not matter if India is intolerant or not, because such reactions to Aamir khan’s statement justified his fears and doubts. A beloved khan made a public statement of his private fears and it was so inacceptable that we turned into such a rabid mob. While millions of us shot bullets of mockery and disdain at him from behind the camouflage of social media, Government of India apparently removed Aamir from the incredible India campaign. Funny how we let a single distorted statement ruin someone’s public image to such an acerbic extent.

Similarly, could our nation still accept Sunny Leone, a girl with indian-origins to have emerged as the ‘porn queen’? A majority of us still turn the judgemental eye on her. In not just the recent but in mostly all her interviews in India, some journalist would manage to slyly slip in a question hinting at her past. Mr. Chaubey was just unfortunate to have culminated all those questions in a single interview. We watched the interview on Youtube and hopped in the hate-train but it was not just he who had humiliated her, we all had. The obnoxious guy sure kept telling her that people had inhibitions about working with her, and that people believed she corrupted Indian morality but it was the ‘people’ really who did all that and then hid in their rooms enjoying her movies.

While Government was apparently intolerant about Aamir’s statements, opposition was intolerant about Modi’s visits to videsh. Bollywood was intolerant towards Sunny Leone. The intolerance train had managed to run over the lives of writers and nationalists also. People were attacked, intimidated, lynched, and murdered but culprits walked around free. Then when the award wapsi trend began to attempt symbolic protest, people became intolerant about that too. Here began the intolerance debate with accusations all over the internet, everyone suspecting it to be a scheme by congress and leftists, and then every new recipient was trolled about joining the disturbing act.

May be Kiran Rao’s concerns were legit. She better be scared of the newspapers everyday. Instead of convincing her about India’s tolerance this way, maybe we could have tried assuaging her fears.

Wondering how we really do stamp every slightly divergent expression or move as INACCEPTABLE!
Speaking of tolerance, now how many of you out there are feeling all itchy about the fact that I should have said ‘unacceptable’ instead, as that’s a more commonly accepted form of the word? ;)
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